References are sources of information that are used when writing reports, articles, student assignments, etc. A reference list shows where the material has come from, what information belongs to the writer and what has been quoted or referred to from other sources. In this way information and quotes can be verified. Read more
The reference list is arranged alphabetically, and must include all the references included in the text.
References are written with an indented margin from the second and following lines, with no extra line break between the references. Alternatively you can write it with a normal margin and with extra line break between the references.
The reference should contain all information necessary for unique identification, and usually includes these elements:
Author, year of publication, title, place of publication and publisher. Read more
When a direct quote is given, the citation should also include the page number. Place a comma between the year and page number.
Short quotations: up to two lines
Short quotes should be integrated in the text, enclosed in quotation marks:
"It is relevant to observe, at this point, that a number of the Spanish Communist leaders were reluctantly forced to similar conclusions" (Chomsky 2005, 49).
Long quotations: more than two lines
Longer quotes should be set off from the text in a block quotation, starting on a new line, indented and without quotations mark. The citation is given in parantheses at the end of the quotation:
Apart from preferences and hopes, which of these conceptions, or which
alternative to them, leads us towards the truth about human nature? To
answer such questions, one most refine and elaborate the framework of
ideas (Chomsky 2005, 174).
When the material refers to specific pages in a book, even if it is not a direct quote, it should be shown as:
Therefore, Fred Selnes (1998, 320-321) concludes in his study that...
If an original source is unavailable, and "quoted in" must be resorted to, mention the original author and date in the text, and cite the secondary source in the reference list entry. The text citation would include the words "quoted in", year of publication, and the specific pages where the original source is mentioned.
Only the sources you actually have read can be referred to in the reference list.
Larry Kellner (2000, quoted in Doganis 2010, 8), stated that airlines...
In the reference list:
Doganis, Rigas. 2010. Flying off course: airline economics and marketing. 4th ed. London: Routledge.
References to oral sources should not be included in the reference list. When it is necessary, use footnotes e.g. "NRK Dagsrevyen 22.08.2013.", or include the reference in the text e.g. ..."in an interview with N.N., 22.08.2013"...