References are sources of information that are used when writing reports, articles, student
assignments, etc. A reference list shows where the material has come from, what information
belongs to the writer and what has been quoted or referred to from other sources. In this way
information and quotes can be verified. A good reference list is one way to avoid plagiarism by
showing the original author's reasoning. The correct use of a reference list is important for all
types of reports and writing tasks.
There are many ways to write a reference list. The "author-date" system is used in many
disciplines, with a variety of styles, like Harvard and APA. This is a simple and effective way to
list a reference and it is widely used in academic writing.
At Molde University College we recommend the reference style Chicago 16 Author - Date references.
This is a style within the Harvard-system, documented in "The Chicago Manual of Style" (2010), 16th
edition. When using EndNote, choose the output style "Chicago 16th Author - Date". There may be other
rules for listing references in an article published in a specific journal. These will be given in the
The reference must be complete so that the reader is able to find the source. Sources are given both
in the text and in the reference list at the end of the report. The citation in the text must correspond
with the entry in the reference list. Keep a complete reference list as you are compiling material for
your report. A reference handling system, like EndNote, can be useful. This is available to our employees
and our master and PhD students.
Citations in the text
The citation of the source in the text should refer the reader to the reference list. Use the author's last
name and year of publication in parenthesis, depending on the structure of the sentence:
- ... that is shown to be important in the strategic process (Lorange 1993).
- Peter Lorange (1993) proposed in his analysis of strategic process that...
Two or three authors
All last names are included, each time they are referred to, e.g. (Adam and Sogner 1994)
More than three authors
Only the first author's last name is used, followed by "et al.": A new study of the auto industry on
Poland (Haanæs et al. 1997) shows that....
Without personal author
For sources without a personal author, the name of an organisation can be used for citation:
(Organisation for economic co-operation and development 2003) or (OECD 2003).
If there is no author or organisation, title can be used for citation: (Globalisation of IT 2006).
Multiple works by same author and year
When there are multiple works by the same author(s) and publication year, add lower case a, b, etc.
after the year:
(Johnson 2003a), (Johnson 2003b).
In the reference list the entries are sorted by name, year and title:
Johnson, Peter. 2003a. Alternative treatment ...
Johnson, Peter. 2003b. Determination of ...